This moment will mostly likely be a digital phase. It means there is a possibility to extend the experience to any given time of your preference (relive the moment). This is an addition to a (finished) soccer match and a taken tour.


Before going to the Stadium for a match, event or tour, you will have to make sure how to get there by car or public transport. Also getting up to date information about the event is very important.

During (surrounding)

When arriving at the stadium, you will have to find the way to the entrance, maybe go to the toilet, show your ticket, find your seat or find your tour guide etc.

During (live)

This is the moment the real action takes place! This means the actual soccer match, event or tour with all kinds of technological enhancements at the Arena with different types of media.

During (from a distance)

This moment will mostly likely be a digital phase. It might be possible to enjoy the real-life event from a distance. For the tour, this will probably not be the case.


this is directly after you have been to the stadium for a match or a tour. You have to find your way back home and might also want to relive and share certain things you’ve just experienced.


Based on the experience map periods, the innovation cases are grouped by specific characteristics. The innovation cases that take place during a live event, for example, belong to 1 story. Within this research, a story means “a short, simple case description with associated factors”. When the case studies are compared, characteristics per story can be given to see the contrasts and similarities (Vannoni, 2014). Various innovations can work together within these stories. In addition, there may be connections between innovations from different stories. To improve the overall experience and connect with the literature, the case innovations are divided into 5 stories.

Story 1a (real time) 

Within story 1a, the focus is on the use of the services, during the live match or event, which is also to be seen at the experience map. Based on the map with the SAX-innovation case studies, it can be seen that services within story 1a are mainly used during a live match.  While during a live match surrounding, before and after phases, fans can also be reached, but there are almost no services provided for this at the moment. Most service factors used in stories 1a are categorized in the theme Immersion & Wow moments.

Story 1b (second screen) 

Story 1b makes good use of the phase before and after the match, so users can get into the atmosphere and enjoy after the match. But the main focus is during the match from a distance. Most services are provided at a distance during a live match or event, such as the home viewers during the live match. Story 1b is mainly a gap during the live broadcast in the stadium and surround. Most service factors used in stories 1b are categorized in the theme around building and engaging fans / athletes / everywhere & Anytime. 

Story 2 (Tour and games) 

Story 2 focuses on live-events during the match in the stadium. Everything is also offered after the match or event. Services that are made for the tour or as a game offer little to participate at a distance. Most service factors used in stories 2 are categorized in the theme Immersion & Wow moments and around building. 

Story 3 (capture the moment) 

There are no services and innovations offered before the competition starts. The services provided are all about memories during and after the match or the event. Most service factors used in stories 3 are categorized in the theme around building & Loyalty / community / sharing. 

Story 4 (wayfinding and venue) 

It is most logical that this is offered before and during the live match or event. There are no companies that offer this for people who want to watch the match from a distance. A huge gap, because even if you have an affinity with the venue, there is no service that is offered while watching the live match or event on the couch at home. Most service factors used in stories 4 are categorized in the theme around building. 

Experience map Casestudies

Background theory and literature about the Experience map

Experiences are not solitary events although highly personal and subjective and also spread over a period of time. Petermans et al (2013) aggregated twenty aspects from literature that relate to customer experience that contribute to the notion that customer experience is a ‘multidimensional construct’. They are a part of a person’s life and therefor also related to time and context specific elements. The concept of the customer journey tries to make these elements explicit to focus on time, place and context specific elements of the relation a person has with a certain organization. As Folstad and Kvale (2018) show the concept of a customer journey has no clear theoretical definition and is widely interpreted depending on the purpose and situation of the practitioner. Although they argue that more common terminology of customer journeys could be beneficial for academics and practitioners, they realize that the fuzzyness could benefit the practitioners. “On the contrary, if the objective of the customer journey perspective is to drive innovation in the domain of experiential services, a malleable terminology may be a strength rather than a weakness as this may support new insight and ideation.”

Where the journey perspective always places the one that has an experience with the service (e.g. customer, visitor etc) at the heart of the design or analysis, there are also approaches with the same elements but a different focus. For instance, the Service Blueprinting method developed by Shostack (1980, 1984) and further developed to support Service Development (Bitner et al 2008) and Service Design (Polaine et al 2013). Service Blueprinting focuses on the underlying service organization and infrastructure (e.g. support systems and backstage actions) and less on the experience of the customer. The method of Service journey design is primarily focused customer expectation management (Folstad and Kvale, 2018). These different focus points in the value creation of service delivery also are found in the method of Experience Mapping that can include parts of the customer journey characteristics described above (like stages and general customer experiences) and combines this with more firm initiated service elements. Thereby creating a more general overview of possible touchpoints and experiences then visualizing common journeys. It can be used for a more holistic view on the service offering and (expected) customer experiences.


  • Bitner, M.J., Ostrom, A.L. and Morgan, F.N. (2008), “Service blueprinting: a practical technique for service innovation”, California Management Review, Vol. 50 No. 3, pp. 66-94.
  • Følstad, A., Kvale, K.,(2018) “Customer journeys: a systematic literature review”, Journal of Service Theory and Practice, Vol. 28 Issue: 2, pp.196-227, https://doi.org/10.1108/ JSTP-11-2014-0261
  • Petermans, A., Janssens,W., Van Cleempoel, K., (2013) “A holistic framework for conceptualizing customer experiences in retail environments”. J.Des.7(2), 1–18.
  • Shostack, G.L. (1982), “How to design a service”, European Journal of Marketing, Vol. 16 No. 1, pp. 49-63.
  • Shostack, G.L. (1984), “Designing services that deliver”, Harvard Business Review, Vol. 62 No. 1, pp. 133-139.